Taxation of International Corporations: Six Economic Facts in 2023

International taxation is known as the study or determination of taxes on a person or business by the tax laws of different countries or the international aspects of a country’s tax laws, as the case may be. Governments often limit the extent of taxing their income in some way to the territory or provide offsets for taxation related to extraterritorial income. Restriction modalities often take the form of a territorial, residence- or exclusion-based system. Some governments have attempted to mitigate the various limitations of these three major systems by adopting a combined system with the characteristics of two or more.

Many governments especially, Corporate Tax UAE individuals and businesses based on income. These tax systems are very different, and there are no general rules. These variations create the possibility of double taxation (when the same income is taxed in different countries) and zero taxation (when income is not taxed in any country). The income tax system can only tax local income or worldwide income. Generally, tax breaks or foreign credits are provided for taxes paid to other jurisdictions when worldwide income is taxed. Limits are almost universally placed on these credits. Multinational corporations often hire international tax specialists, experts in the legal and accounting professions, to reduce global tax liability.

Regardless of the tax system, it is possible to change or redefine income to reduce taxes. Jurisdictions often impose rules regarding the transfer of income between parties under common control, commonly known as transfer pricing rules. Residence-based systems can be subject to taxpayer attempts to delay income recognition using stakeholders. Some jurisdictions impose rules that restrict this delay (“anti-delay regime”). Some governments also explicitly permit postponement for specific social purposes or other reasons. Agreements between governments (treaties) often attempt to determine who will have the power to tax what. Most tax agreements provide at least one basic mechanism for resolving disputes between parties.


Territory or based on residence. In the territorial system, only local income, i.e., income from domestic sources, is taxed. In a residence-based system, residents of a country are taxed on their worldwide income (local and foreign), while nonresidents are taxed only on local income. their side. In addition, some countries also tax the worldwide income of their nonresident citizens under certain circumstances.

Countries with a residence-based tax system often allow deductions or deductions for taxes paid by residents to other countries on their foreign income. Many countries also enter into tax treaties with each other in order to eliminate or reduce double taxation. In the case of corporate income taxes, some countries allow the exclusion or deferral of certain amounts of foreign income from the tax base.


A table summarizes the taxation of domestic and foreign income of individuals, depending on their place of residence or nationality in that country.

It must include 244 entries: One hundred ninety-four sovereign states, 40 inhabited of which are dependent territories (most of which have separate tax systems), and ten countries with limited recognition. In the table, income includes any income received by individuals, such as income from employment or investments, and means that the country taxes at least one of these categories.


Tax regimes are generally classified based on residence or territory. Most jurisdictions tax income based on residence. They must identify the “resident” and describe the nonresident’s income. These definitions vary by country and type of taxpayer but generally relate to the person’s principal residence and the number of days the person is physically present in that country. 


The United States taxes its citizens as residents and makes long and detailed rules about the residence of individual aliens, including:

The period of establishment of residence (including the calculation of the three-year form);

Start and end date of residency;

Exceptions for short visits, medical conditions, etc.


Nonresident, resident, and resident but not ordinary residents. As of 2013, resident categories are limited to nonresidents and residents. The residence is established by applying the criteria of the Statutory Residency Test.

Residence in Switzerland can be established by obtaining a Swiss work permit for such a person employed.

Territorial systems typically tax local income regardless of the taxpayer’s residence. The main problem with this type of system is the ability to avoid taxation on mobile income by transferring it abroad. This has led governments to adopt combined systems to recover lost revenue.


Effective and equitable ways to increase income (Nunn and Shambaugh 2020), leading economists and other experts have produced a series of detailed proposals for better tax policies to increase income according to progressive and growth-friendly way. This book includes policy recommendations on several issues, including value-added tax, financial transaction tax, property and inheritance tax, and better enforcement and management of old and new tax laws.

The Internal Revenue Service’s resources to improve and fix international problems and broken businesses. Tax systems. On this last point, Kimberly Clausing1 presented a policy proposal to efficiently and equitably generate additional revenue from U.S. multinationals (Clause 2020a). Congress is currently considering several key aspects of Clausing’s proposal.

In this collection of economic facts, the Hamilton Project and NYU Law Center for Tax Law present background information on the international corporate tax proposals that U.S. lawmakers are considering, including how those proposals relate to a new multilateral agreement on international corporate taxation. 


How current legislation allows U.S. multinationals to significantly reduce their effective tax rates worldwide by relocating their profits abroad.

How the proposed U.S. tax reform for multinational corporations, based on the fundamental approach to international corporate tax policy in tax law enacted in 2017 (known as the Act tax cuts and Jobs in 2017 [TCJA]), seeks to increase revenue and reduce profit shifting. U.S. lawmakers are considering tax proposals and how the new multilateral international corporate tax agreement is meant to reinforce each other, keeping the United States competitive as an investment and residency for corporations.

He then presented the six truths to illustrate the motivations and goals of current reform proposals. However, because this article focuses on the U.S. reforms currently being considered by Congress and the new multilateral agreement, it does not describe or evaluate many alternative national and multilateral reforms that could introduce legislation into the United States—taxes in a fundamentally different direction.

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